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Merge Sort program in C Language

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Merge Sort program in C Language algorithm implementation – Merge sort is based on divide and conquer rule based. merge sort always divides the array into two halves and takes linear time to merge two halves.

Time Complexity: T(n) = 2T(n/2) + θ(n)

  • Time complexity of Merge Sort is θ(nLogn) in all 3 cases (worst, average and best)
  • Auxiliary Space: O(n)
  • Algorithmic Paradigm: Divide and Conquer
  • Sorting In Place: No in a typical implementation
  • Stable: Yes


In this program user would be asked to enter the number of elements along with the element values and then the programs would sort them in ascending order by using merge sorting algorithm logic.

Types of Sorting Algorithms:

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Merge Sort algorithm C Program implementation



#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
  
// Merges two subarrays of arr[].
// First subarray is arr[l..m]
// Second subarray is arr[m+1..r]
void merge(int arr[], int l, int m, int r)
{
    int i, j, k;
    int n1 = m - l + 1;
    int n2 = r - m;
  
    /* create temp arrays */
    int L[n1], R[n2];
  
    /* Copy data to temp arrays L[] and R[] */
    for (i = 0; i < n1; i++)
        L[i] = arr[l + i];
    for (j = 0; j < n2; j++)
        R[j] = arr[m + 1 + j];
  
    /* Merge the temp arrays back into arr[l..r]*/
    i = 0; // Initial index of first subarray
    j = 0; // Initial index of second subarray
    k = l; // Initial index of merged subarray
    while (i < n1 && j < n2) {
        if (L[i] <= R[j]) {
            arr[k] = L[i];
            i++;
        }
        else {
            arr[k] = R[j];
            j++;
        }
        k++;
    }
  
    /* Copy the remaining elements of L[], if there
    are any */
    while (i < n1) {
        arr[k] = L[i];
        i++;
        k++;
    }
  
    /* Copy the remaining elements of R[], if there
    are any */
    while (j < n2) {
        arr[k] = R[j];
        j++;
        k++;
    }
}
  
/* l is for left index and r is right index of the
sub-array of arr to be sorted */
void mergeSort(int arr[], int l, int r)
{
    if (l < r) {
        // Same as (l+r)/2, but avoids overflow for
        // large l and h
        int m = l + (r - l) / 2;
  
        // Sort first and second halves
        mergeSort(arr, l, m);
        mergeSort(arr, m + 1, r);
  
        merge(arr, l, m, r);
    }
}
  
/* UTILITY FUNCTIONS */
/* Function to print an array */
void printArray(int A[], int size)
{
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
        printf("%d ", A[i]);
    printf("\n");
}
  
/* Driver code */
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 12, 11, 13, 5, 6, 7 };
    int arr_size = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
  
    printf("Given array is \n");
    printArray(arr, arr_size);
  
    mergeSort(arr, 0, arr_size - 1);
  
    printf("\nSorted array is \n");
    printArray(arr, arr_size);
    return 0;
}






OUTPUT





Given array is 
13 12 14 6 7 8 
Sorted array is 
6 7 8 12 13 14



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